Initial test to diagnose or rule out classic galactosemia. Recommended carrier testing for galactosemia.
Enzymatic/Polymerase Chain Reaction/Single Nucleotide Extensions
Mon, Wed, Fri
Lavender (EDTA), pink (K2EDTA), or green (sodium heparin).
Do not freeze. Transport 10 mL whole blood. (Min: 3 mL)
Frozen or room temperature specimens.
Ambient: Unacceptable; Refrigerated: 5 days; Frozen: Unacceptable
One U/g Hb is equivalent to one umol/hour/gram of hemoglobin (umol/hr/g Hb).
Background Information for Galactosemia (GALT) Enzyme Activity and 9 Mutations:
Characteristics: Affected infants present at 3-14 days old with poor feeding, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, lethargy progressing to coma, and abdominal distension with hepatomegaly usually followed by progressive liver failure. Patients with galactosemia are also at increased risk for E. coli or other gram-negative neonatal sepsis. Diagnosis is made by measuring GALT enzyme activity in red blood cells.
Incidence: Approximately 1 in 30,000 to 60,000 of classic galactosemia in Caucasian, varies in other populations.
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive
Penetrance: 100 percent for severe GALT mutations
Cause: Mutations in the GALT gene.
Mutations Tested: Seven GALT gene mutations (Q188R, S135L, K285N, T138M, L195P, Y209C, and IVS2-2 A>G) and two variants (N314D and L218L).
Clinical Sensitivity DNA: Approaches 80 percent in Caucasians but reduced in other ethnic groups.
Methodology DNA: Polymerase chain reaction followed by single nucleotide extension (SNE) and capillary electrophoresis.
Analytical Sensitivity DNA: 99 percent for mutations listed.
Limitations DNA: GALT gene mutations, other than the 9 targeted, will not be detected. Diagnostic errors can occur due to rare sequence variations.
Methodology Enzymatic: Spectrophotometric quantitation of enzyme activity in red blood cells.
Counseling and informed consent are recommended for genetic testing. Consent forms are available online at www.aruplab.com
Laboratory Developed Test (LDT)
|Component Test Code*||Component Chart Name||LOINC|
|0051171||Galactosemia (GALT) DNA Pan,G1PUT Spec|
|0051177||Galactosemia - Ethnicity||42784-9|
|0051178||Galactosemia - Symptoms|
|0051179||Galactosemia - Abnormal Newborn Screen|
|0051180||Galactosemia - Family History||8670-2|
|0051182||Galactosemia (GALT) Allele 1||42940-7|
|0051183||Galactosemia (GALT) Allele 2||42941-5|
|0051187||Galactosemia (GALT) DNA Pan,G1PUT Interp|
- GALT DNA
- Galactosemia Carrier Testing
- Galactosemia Confirmation Test
- Galactosemia genotyping