Useful as a biomarker of chronic thallium exposure. For the assessment of acute exposure, consider Thallium, Whole Blood (0099610).
Quantitative Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
Diet, medication, and nutritional supplements may introduce interfering substances. Patients should be encouraged to discontinue nutritional supplements, vitamins, minerals, and non-essential over-the-counter medications (upon the advice of their physician). High concentrations of iodine may interfere with elemental testing. Collection of urine specimens from patients receiving iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media should be avoided for a minimum of 72 hours post-exposure. Collection from patients with impaired kidney function should be avoided for a minimum of 14 days post-contrast media exposure.
24-hour or random urine collection. Specimen must be collected in a plastic container. ARUP studies indicate that refrigeration of urine alone, during and after collection, preserves specimens adequately if tested within 14 days of collection.
Transfer an 8 mL aliquot from a well-mixed collection to ARUP Trace Element-Free Transport Tubes (ARUP supply #43116). Available online through eSupply using ARUP Connect™ or contact ARUP Client Services at (800) 522-2787. (Min: 1 mL)
Refrigerated. Also acceptable: Room temperature or frozen.
Urine collected within 72 hours after administration of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media. Acid preserved urine. Specimens contaminated with blood or fecal material. Specimens transported in non-trace element-free transport tube (with the exception of the original device).
Record total volume and collection time interval on transport tube and on test request form.
Ambient: 1 week; Refrigerated: 2 weeks; Frozen: 1 year
|Thallium, Urine - per volume||Effective November 12, 2018
|Thallium, Urine - per 24h||0.0-0.4 µg/d|
|Thallium, Urine - ratio to CRT||Effective November 12, 2018
0.0-2.0 µg/g CRT
|0020473||Creatinine, Urine - per 24h||
Urinary thallium levels may reflect recent or chronic exposure and the presence of thallium in urine after acute exposure may persist for up to several weeks. Concentrations less than 5 µg/L are unlikely to cause adverse health effects while concentrations greater than 500 µg/L have been associated with clinical poisoning. After severe thallium poisoning reported symptoms have varying times of onset and include gastroenteritis, multi-organ failure and neurologic injury. Peripheral neuropathy and alopecia are well-documented effects of acute and chronic exposure. Human health effects from low level thallium exposure are unknown.
Laboratory Developed Test (LDT)
|Component Test Code*||Component Chart Name||LOINC|
|0020207||Creatinine, Urine - per volume||2161-8|
|0020208||Creatinine, Urine - per 24h||2162-6|
|0025021||Thallium, Urine - per 24h||5746-3|
|0025022||Thallium, Urine - per volume||21558-2|
|0025049||Thallium, Urine - ratio to CRT||29938-8|
- Normalized Urine Thallium
- Thallium/Creatinine Ratio, Random, Urine
- Tl Urine
- Urine thallium concentration