Ordering Recommendation

Prenatal test for known DMD gene deletions/duplications previously identified in a family member. A copy of the family member's test result documenting the known familial variant is required.

New York DOH Approval Status

This test is not New York state approved. There are no New York state-approved laboratories available. Submit a Non-Permitted Laboratory Request Form (NPL) to the NYDOH prior to collection of specimen. If NPL is approved by NYDOH, and sample is received at ARUP, testing will be performed.

Specimen Required

Patient Preparation

Fetal Cultured Amniocytes or Cultured CVS AND Maternal Whole Blood Specimen: Lavender (EDTA), pink (K2EDTA), or yellow (ACD solution A or B).

Specimen Preparation

Cultured Amniocytes or Cultured CVS: Transfer cultured amniocytes or cultured CVS to two T-25 flasks at 80 percent confluence. (Min: one T-25 flask at 80 percent confluence). Backup cultures must be retained at the client's institution until testing is complete. If ARUP receives a sample below the minimum confluence, Cytogenetics Grow and Send (ARUP test code 0040182) will be added on by ARUP, and additional charges will apply. If clients are unable to culture specimens, Cytogenetics Grow and Send should be added to initial order.
Maternal Whole Blood Specimen: Transport 2 mL whole blood. (Min: 1 mL)

Storage/Transport Temperature

Cultured Amniocytes or Cultured CVS: CRITICAL ROOM TEMPERATURE. Must be received within 48 hours of collection due to viability of cells.
Maternal Whole Blood Specimen: Room temperature.

Unacceptable Conditions

Cultured Amniocytes or Cultured CVS: Room temperature: 48 hours; Refrigerated: Unacceptable; Frozen: Unacceptable
Maternal Whole Blood Specimen
: Room temperature: 7 days; Refrigerated: 1 month; Frozen: Unacceptable


Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification




9-10 days
If culture is required, an additional 1 to 2 weeks is required for processing time.

Reference Interval

By report

Interpretive Data

Background information for Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Deletion/Duplication, Fetal:
Characteristics: Symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually begin before age 6 and include fatigue, learning difficulties, muscle weakness (beginning in legs and pelvis), progressive difficulty walking with wheelchair needed at approximately 12 years and breathing difficulties and heart disease by age 20 years. Symptoms of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are similar to DMD but start later and progress at a slower rate. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been observed in nearly all affected males and many female carriers of DMD and BMD.
Incidence:  DMD: 1 in 3,500 male births, BMD: 1 in 19,000 male births.
Inheritance: X-linked; de novo mutations occur in one-third of cases.
Penetrance: Males: 100 percent. Females: Varies with X-chromosome inactivation.
Cause: Pathogenic DMD mutations.
Clinical Sensitivity: DMD: 55-75 percent, BMD: 75-90 percent.
Methodology: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to detect large exonic deletions/duplications.
Analytical Sensitivity and Specificity: Greater than 99 percent.
Limitations: DMD base pair substitutions, small deletions/duplications, deep intronic, and regulatory region mutations will not be detected. Breakpoints for large deletions/duplications will not be determined. Diagnostic errors can occur due to rare sequence variation.

Counseling and informed consent are recommended for genetic testing. Consent forms are available online.

Compliance Category

Laboratory Developed Test (LDT)


Hotline History


CPT Codes

81161; 81265 Fetal Cell Contamination (FCC)


Component Test Code* Component Chart Name LOINC
0050548 Maternal Contamination Study Fetal Spec 59266-7
0050612 Maternal Contam Study, Maternal Spec 66746-9
2011232 DMD DelDup Fetal Specimen
2011233 Duchenne/Becker DelDup Fetal Interp 21247-2
* Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is not sufficient for interface builds; for a complete test mix, please click the sidebar link to access the Interface Map.


  • Dystrophinopathies
Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Deletion/Duplication, Fetal