Ordering Recommendation

Prenatal test for known DMD gene deletions/duplications previously identified in a family member. A copy of the family member's test result documenting the known familial variant is required.

Mnemonic
DMD DD FE
Methodology

Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification

Performed

Varies

Reported

Within 10 days

New York DOH Approval Status
Specimens from New York clients will be sent out to a New York DOH approved laboratory, if possible.
Specimen Required
Patient Preparation
Collect

Fetal Specimen: Two T-25 flasks at 80 percent confluency of cultured amniocytes. If the client is unable to culture amniocytes, this can be arranged by contacting ARUP Client Services at (800) 522-2787.
AND Maternal Specimen
: Lavender (EDTA), pink (K2EDTA), or yellow (ACD Solution A or B).

Specimen Preparation

Cultured Amniocytes: Fill flasks with culture media. Transport two T-25 flasks at 80 percent confluency of cultured amniocytes. Backup cultures must be retained at the client's institution until testing is complete.
Maternal Specimen:
Transport 3 mL whole blood. (Min: 1 mL)

Storage/Transport Temperature

Amniotic Fluid: Room temperature.
Cultured Amniocytes:
CRITICAL ROOM TEMPERATURE. Must be received within 48 hours of shipment due to viability of cells.
Maternal Specimen:
Room temperature.

Unacceptable Conditions
Remarks

Maternal specimen is recommended for proper test interpretation. Order Maternal Cell Contamination, Maternal Specimen. This can be arranged by contacting ARUP genetic counselors at (800) 242-2787 ext. 2141. Patient History Form is available on the ARUP Web site or by contacting ARUP Client Services at (800) 522-2787.

Stability

Fetal Specimen: Ambient: 48 hours; Refrigerated: Unacceptable; Frozen: Unacceptable
Maternal Specimen
: Ambient: 72 hours; Refrigerated: 1 week; Frozen: Unacceptable

Reference Interval

By report

Interpretive Data

Background information for Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Deletion/Duplication, Fetal:
Characteristics
: Symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually begin before age 6 and include fatigue, learning difficulties, muscle weakness (beginning in legs and pelvis), progressive difficulty walking with wheelchair needed at approximately 12 years and breathing difficulties and heart disease by age 20 years. Symptoms of Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are similar to DMD but start later and progress at a slower rate. Dilated cardiomyopathy has been observed in nearly all affected males and many female carriers of DMD and BMD.
Incidence
:  DMD: 1 in 3,500 male births, BMD: 1 in 19,000 male births.
Inheritance
: X-linked; de novo mutations occur in one-third of cases.
Penetrance
: Males: 100 percent. Females: Varies with X-chromosome inactivation.
Cause
: Pathogenic DMD mutations.
Clinical Sensitivity:
DMD: 55-75 percent, BMD: 75-90 percent.
Methodology
: Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to detect large exonic deletions/duplications.
Analytical Sensitivity and Specificity
: Greater than 99 percent.
Limitations
: DMD base pair substitutions, small deletions/duplications, deep intronic, and regulatory region mutations will not be detected. Breakpoints for large deletions/duplications will not be determined. Diagnostic errors can occur due to rare sequence variation.

For quality assurance purposes, ARUP Laboratories will confirm the above result at no charge following delivery. Order Confirmation of Fetal Testing and include a copy of the original fetal report (or the mother's name and date of birth) with the test submission. Please contact an ARUP genetic counselor at (800) 242-2787 extension 2141 prior to specimen submission.

Counseling and informed consent are recommended for genetic testing. Consent forms are available online at www.aruplab.com. 

Compliance Category

Laboratory Developed Test (LDT)

Note
Hotline History
N/A
CPT Codes

81161; 81265 Fetal Cell Contamination (FCC)

Components
Component Test Code* Component Chart Name LOINC
0050548 Maternal Contamination Study Fetal Spec 59266-7
0050612 Maternal Contam Study, Maternal Spec 31208-2
2011232 DMD DelDup Fetal Specimen
2011233 Duchenne/Becker DelDup Fetal Interp 21247-2
* Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is not sufficient for interface builds; for a complete test mix, please click the sidebar link to access the Interface Map.
Aliases
  • Dystrophinopatihies
Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) Deletion/Duplication, Fetal