Wilson Disease Screening Panel, Serum (Temporary Referral as of 05/22/19)(INACTIVE as of 11/18/19: Refer to 0020096, 0050160, 3001971 in the November Hotline)
Ordering Recommendation

Preferred panel to diagnose conditions of copper overload in symptomatic patients or individuals with a family history of Wilson disease (WD). Directly measured, free (non-ceruloplasmin bound) fraction of copper is included. To monitor response to copper-reducing therapies, refer to Copper, Serum Free (Direct) (0020596).

Quantitative Immunoturbidimetry/Quantitative Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry
Refer to individual components
1-5 days
New York DOH Approval Status
This test is New York DOH approved.
Submit With Order
Specimen Required
Patient Preparation
Diet, medication, and nutritional supplements may introduce interfering substances. Patient should be encouraged to discontinue nutritional supplements, vitamins, minerals, and non-essential over-the-counter medications (upon the advice of their physician). 
Royal Blue (No Additive). 
Specimen Preparation
Separate from cells ASAP or within 2 hours of collection. Transfer 4 mL of serum to an ARUP Trace Element-Free Transport Tube (ARUP supply #43116) available online through eSupply using ARUP Connect™ or contact ARUP Client Services at (800) 522-2787. (Min: 2.5 mL) 
Storage/Transport Temperature
Unacceptable Conditions
Specimens collected in containers other than specified. Specimens transported in containers other than specified. 
After separation from cells: Ambient: 8 hours; Refrigerated: 72 hours; Frozen: 1 month 
Reference Interval
Test Number
Reference Interval
0020096Copper, Serum or Plasma
0-10 years75.0-153.0 µg/dL75.0-153.0 µg/dL
11 years-12 years64.0-132.0 µg/dL64.0-132.0 µg/dL
13 years-18 years57.0-129.0 µg/dL57.0-129.0 µg/dL
19 years and older70.0-140.0 µg/dL80.0-155.0 µg/dL

6 months-6 years18-37 mg/dL
7-17 years20-43 mg/dL
18 years and older17-54 mg/dL

0020596Copper, Serum Free (Direct) (Temporary Referral as of 05/22/19)(INACTIVE as of 11/18/19: Refer to 3001971 in the November Hotline)0.0-10.0 µg/dL

Interpretive Data
Elevated results may be due to skin or collection-related contamination, including the use of a noncertified metal-free collection/transport tube. If contamination concerns exist due to elevated levels of serum copper, confirmation with a second specimen collected in a certified metal-free tube is recommended.

Free copper (direct) is determined with serum ultrafiltrate. In Wilson disease or other conditions of copper overload, serum ceruloplasmin is usually low and free copper (direct) is usually high. Other tests used to diagnosis Wilson disease include 24-hour urine copper, and hepatic copper. Slit lamp examination for Kayser-Fleischer rings and genetic testing may also be helpful.

Hotline History
View Hotline History
Component Test Code*Component Chart NameLOINC
0020096Copper, Serum/Plasma5631-7
0020596Copper, Serum Free (Direct)5631-7
* Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is not sufficient for interface builds; for a complete test mix, please click the sidebar link to access the Interface Map.
  • ceruloplasmin
  • Copper free and direct
  • Copper Panel
  • Copper, Free
  • CU free and direct
  • Direct and free copper
  • Free Copper Index
  • Free CU index